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Programming Styles

There are many programming paradigms (models). Some of the paradigms are procedural, functional, rule-based, declarative and object-oriented. A language can have aspects of one or many of these programming models.


The programming paradigm most people are familiar with is the procedural style. The primitives in procedural programming are: subroutines and data structures. Through these primitives, programmers have some limited abilities to share programs and program fragments. C and Pascal are examples of procedural languages. Some procedural languages (such as Modula and ADA) have extensions that provide for better sharing of code.

Object-Oriented Programming

Object-oriented programming is based on the primitives of objects, classes and messages. Objects are defined in terms of classes. Actions occur by sending a message to an object. An object's definition can be inherited from more general classes. Objective-C and C++ both are object-oriented dialects of the C language. Many dialects of LISP have some object oriented extension (Flavors, Common LOOPS, CLOS and others). There currently is standards work proceeding to add object-oriented programming to Common LISP.

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