All `,v' files are created read-only, and you should not change the permission of those files. The directories inside the repository should be writable by the persons that have permission to modify the files in each directory. This normally means that you must create a UNIX group (see group(5)) consisting of the persons that are to edit the files in a project, and set up the repository so that it is that group that owns the directory.
This means that you can only control access to files on a per-directory basis.
Note that users must also have write access to check out files, because CVS needs to create lock files (see section Several developers simultaneously attempting to run CVS).
Also note that users must have write access to the `CVSROOT/val-tags' file. CVS uses it to keep track of what tags are valid tag names (it is sometimes updated when tags are used, as well as when they are created).
Each RCS file will be owned by the user who last checked it in. This has little significance; what really matters is who owns the directories.
CVS tries to set up reasonable file permissions
for new directories that are added inside the tree, but
you must fix the permissions manually when a new
directory should have different permissions than its
parent directory. If you set the
environment variable that will control the file
permissions which CVS uses in creating directories
and/or files in the repository.
not affect the file permissions in the working
directory; such files have the permissions which are
typical for newly created files, except that sometimes
CVS creates them read-only (see the sections on
watches, section Telling CVS to watch certain files; -r, section Global options; or
CVSREAD, section All environment variables which affect CVS).
Note that using the client/server CVS
(see section Remote repositories), there is no good way to
CVSUMASK; the setting on the client machine
has no effect. If you are connecting with
CVSUMASK in `.bashrc' or `.cshrc', as
described in the documentation for your operating
system. This behavior might change in future versions
of CVS; do not rely on the setting of
CVSUMASK on the client having no effect.
Using pserver, you will generally need stricter permissions on the CVSROOT directory and directories above it in the tree; see section Security considerations with password authentication.
Some operating systems have features which allow a particular program to run with the ability to perform operations which the caller of the program could not. For example, the set user ID (setuid) or set group ID (setgid) features of unix or the installed image feature of VMS. CVS was not written to use such features and therefore attempting to install CVS in this fashion will provide protection against only accidental lapses; anyone who is trying to circumvent the measure will be able to do so, and depending on how you have set it up may gain access to more than just CVS. You may wish to instead consider pserver. It shares some of the same attributes, in terms of possibly providing a false sense of security or opening security holes wider than the ones you are trying to fix, so read the documentation on pserver security carefully if you are considering this option (section Security considerations with password authentication).